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Assessing Current Scientific Knowledge, Uncertainties and Gaps in
but in isolation is of limited use in assessing climate impacts and related ..... Aviation Environmental Design Tool/Model for Assessing Global ... Input data include aircraft noise and performance ..... Law 109-58, Energy Policy Act of 2005 ; see EPACT, 2007 and ... contrail formation or aviation-induced cirrus formation, and.

Climate Impacts of Aviation - MIT
Period of Performance: June 1, 2005 to December 30, 2007 ... of contrails using large-eddy simulations, work conducted at Stanford University. Part II is ... prediction of aviation-related radiative forcing in Global Circulation Models (GCM ). .... Conduct a collaborative assessment of different ice microphysics models and the.

Effects of optical depth variability on contrail radiative forcing
Nov 12, 2012 ... depth in models by prescribing a mean optical depth may overestimate mean net ... uncertainties in aviation climate assessments. ... Several global contrail RF estimates exist, based on global .... since contrails do not act as perfect black bodies. ..... detection efficiency and on the performance of the contrail.

Ice supersaturation and the potential for contrail formation in a
Sep 2, 2015 ... regions with temperature below 233 K) are most relevant for contrail formation. ... The models show a global-mean, annual-mean decrease in CISS frequency by about one-third, from ... allowing not only the assessment of changes to ISS over a ...... to increase over the 21st century, with climate change act-.

Simulation of particle size distribution with a global aerosol model
in assessing climate change (NRC, 2005; IPCC, 2007; Chin et al., 2009). ... determined by the number abundance of particles that can act as CCN ... indirect forcing, using a global aerosol model that calculates the nucleation in and .... (Yu, 1998; Yu and Turco, 1997, 2008) and can resolve liquid and frozen contrail particles.

An evaluation of the temperature, water vapor, and vertical velocity
Apr 27, 1998 ... Measurements made in contrails formed in the wake of a Lear 3 5 have been analyzed with ... possibility of global climate changes, a more focused effort has been ... so-called greenhouse gases that act to absorb terrestrial radiation ... [ Freudenthaler et al., 1995] were compared with model calculations by ...

A Report of Findings and Recommendations - Federal Aviation
Aug 31, 2006 ... B. Contrails and Cirrus. .... 4.1 Issues with Metrics for Assessing Aviation Climate Impacts . ..... being used to evaluate the global model .... of background aerosol particles to act as ...... ment of observation-based performance.

down assessment of the Asian carbon budget since the mid 1990s
Feb 25, 2016 ... with a model of atmospheric transport to constrain CO2 fluxes ... In this study, we assess the carbon budget of Asia using an ... observations from the CONTRAIL programme between 2008 and ... ACTM-based inversion system, CSIRO is the CCAM-based inversion system, JMA is the JMA-CDTM-based ...
Thompson_2016_Top–down assessment of the Asian carbon budget since the mid 1990s.NatureCom.pdf

Advancing the understanding of aviation's global impact - Oakland
A discussion of research after the IPCC report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. R.C. Miake- ... Impact Assessment Program (CIAP), which studied the effects .... effects of contrails, induced-cirrus, NOx and ... very well based on engine performance calculations ..... Global models that calculate the impact of emissions.
Advancing Understanding of Aviation Global Impact_2006.pdf

Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding
Nov 3, 2015 ... control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in ... of the coupled model together with methodologies that are .... 10 June 2015) and NCEP ADP Global upper Air obser- ... provement in model performance for temperature. ...... with aircraft emission contrails (Hofmann et al., 1998) can.

Final Study - Europa
Interaction between composition and performance of jet fuels, biofuels and ... Development of theoretical emission model, plus variability assessment ........45. 5.1. Identification of a global model needed to account for the overall process .... contrail formation with respect to the introduction of biofuels and blends (and similar.

The effects of aviation contrails on global climate - Contrail Science
1Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LS, United ... Business Area Manager, Propulsion and Performance Department ... a review of the main causes of uncertainty in the climate effect of contrails;. 2. .... “Are trends in global cirrus cloud coverage connected with trends in air traffic?” 36.

Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation
The effects of aviation emissions of CO2 on global ... aviation particles on clouds (with and without contrails) may give rise to either a ... Assessment of Transport Impacts on Climate Change and Ozone .... altitude and model transport, as well as the sign of this ... chemical composition, and performance (Lewis et al., 1999).

aircraft design for reduced climate impact a dissertation
model into an aircraft design and performance analysis tool. The average tempera ..... applying a contrail avoidance strategy with varying assumptions. . . . 99 ... A 2007 assessment of global climate change estimates that surface temperatures in- creased by ..... that can act as cloud condensation nuclei, known as soot cirrus.

case orange -
It highlights the specific problems associated with contrails emitted by aircraft, ... seeding for the sake of military interests and a global business model has a ... Military aircraft travelling at transonic speed and making high performance maneuvers .... Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality ...

Arezoo Khodayari, 2013 - Ideals
with contrails can affect the amount and characteristics of cirrus clouds. ... the level of sophistication necessary to accurately assess aviation induced .... US EPA under the Clean Air Act. .... Global Climate Models (GCMs) are models with complex mathematical .... performance for use in aviation-related effects on climate.

Complex Environmental Systems - National Science Foundation
gram performance for environmental research and education activities. ... portfolio of environmental activities, consulted broadly with NSF staff and the staff .... measure the effects of jet condensation trails (see figures), or contrails, on surface ...... cal models have been used to assess major pools for global carbon storage, ...

Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and - Biogeosciences
16CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, ... standing of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to ... in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground- .... and CH4 fluxes with sufficient accuracy to assess natural pro- ... performance base payments or activity-based mechanisms,.

A case study of the radiative forcing of persistent contrails evolving
The development of the contrail-induced cirrus is tracked using ... instruments, numerical weather prediction models, and surface observation sites. As ... estimates of the persistent contrail radiative forcing due to the entire global ... establish whether similar events are common or highly unusual for a confident assessment.

MAGICC/SCENGEN 5.3: USER MANUAL - Climate & Global
MAGICC has been one of the primary models used by IPCC since ... 4.1 version of the software uses the IPCC Third Assessment Report, Working Group 1 (TAR) .... Contrails. 0.01. Not included. 21. TOTAL. 0.6(1.6)2.4. 21a. Component sum ..... It is unlikely that all of these factors would act in the same direction (although.

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